Even London, at that time the world's largest city, did not require indoor toilets in its building codes until after the First World War.A typical flush toilet is a ceramic bowl (pan) connected on the "up" side to a cistern (tank) that enables rapid filling with water, and on the "down" side to a drain pipe that removes the effluent.The Indus Valley Civilization is particularly notable for its extensive sanitation works, including private flush toilets.For the most part, early cities emptied their waste into rivers or seas manually or via open ditches.This type of low-cost toilet is common in many Asian countries.It can use as little as 2–3 litres, and this can be greywater or rainwater. For example, from simple to more complex: a bucket toilet (honey bucket), a tree bog or arborloo (two simple systems for converting excrement to direct fertiliser for trees), a pit toilet (a deep hole in the ground), a vault toilet (which keeps all the waste underground until it is pumped out), a composting toilet (which mixes excreta with carbon-rich materials for faster decomposition), a urine-diverting dry toilet (which keeps urine separate from feces), and the self-explanatory incinerating and freezing toilets.
In some places, users are encouraged not to flush after urination.is a sanitation fixture used for the storing or disposal of human urine and feces.In developed countries, different forms of porcelain flush toilets are common: seats are usually used in the West while squat toilets are common in East Asia.When the pit becomes too full, it may be emptied or the hole covered with earth.Pit latrines have to be located away from drinking water sources (wells, streams, etc.) to minimize the possibility of disease spread via groundwater pollution.
In many countries, private homes are designed with the flush toilet and the bath or shower in the same room, the bathroom, to simplify plumbing and reduce cost.